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Yahoo! | Wikipedia audio article


Yahoo! () is an American web services provider
headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, and owned by Verizon Media. The original Yahoo! company was founded by
Jerry Yang and David Filo in January 1994 and was incorporated on March 2, 1995. Yahoo was one of the pioneers of the early
Internet era in the 1990s.It provides or provided a Web portal, search engine Yahoo! Search, and related services, including Yahoo! Directory, Yahoo! Mail, Yahoo! News, Yahoo! Finance, Yahoo! Groups, Yahoo! Answers, advertising, online mapping, video
sharing, fantasy sports, and its social media website. At its height it was one of the most popular
sites in the United States. According to third-party web analytics providers
Alexa and SimilarWeb, Yahoo! was the most widely read news and media website – with
over 7 billion views per month – ranking as the sixth-most-visited website globally
in 2016.Once one of the largest internet companies, Yahoo! slowly declined starting in the late
2000s, and in 2017 Verizon Communications acquired most of Yahoo’s Internet business
for $4.48 billion, excluding its stakes in Alibaba Group and Yahoo! Japan, which were transferred to Yahoo’s successor
company Altaba. Despite its decline from prominence, Yahoo!
domain websites are still one of the most popular, ranking 10th in the world according
to the Alexa rankings as of October 2019.==History=====
Founding===In January 1994, Yang and Filo were electrical
engineering graduate students at Stanford University, when they created a website named
“Jerry and David’s guide to the World Wide Web”. The site was a directory of other websites,
organized in a hierarchy, as opposed to a searchable index of pages. In March 1994, “Jerry and David’s Guide to
the World Wide Web” was renamed “Yahoo!”. The human-edited Yahoo! Directory, provided for users to surf through
the Internet, became their first product and the company’s original purpose. The “yahoo.com” domain was created on January
18, 1995.The word “yahoo” is a backronym for “Yet Another Hierarchically Organized Oracle”
or “Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle”. The term “hierarchical” described how the
Yahoo database was arranged in layers of subcategories. The term “oracle” was intended to mean “source
of truth and wisdom”, and the term “officious”, rather than being related to the word’s normal
meaning, described the many office workers who would use the Yahoo database while surfing
from work. However, Filo and Yang insist they mainly
selected the name because they liked the slang definition of a “yahoo” (used by college students
in David Filo’s native Louisiana in the late 1980s and early 1990s to refer to an unsophisticated,
rural Southerner): “rude, unsophisticated, uncouth.” This meaning derives from the Yahoo race of
fictional beings from Gulliver’s Travels. In 1995, a search engine function, called
Yahoo! Search, was introduced. This allowed users to search Yahoo! Directory. Yahoo! soon became the first popular online
directory and search engine on the World Wide Web.===Expansion===
Yahoo grew rapidly throughout the 1990s. Yahoo went public in April 1996 and its stock
price rose by 600 percent within two years. Like many search engines and web directories,
Yahoo added a web portal, putting it in competition with services like Excite, Lycos and America
Online. By 1998, Yahoo was the most popular starting
point for web users, and the human-edited Yahoo Directory the most popular search engine,
receiving 95 million page views per day which was triple the number compared to rival Excite. It also made many high-profile acquisitions. Yahoo began offering free e-mail from October
1997 after the acquisition of RocketMail, which was then renamed to Yahoo! Mail. In 1998, Yahoo! decided to replace AltaVista
as the crawler-based search engine underlying the Directory with Inktomi. Yahoo’s two biggest acquisitions were made
in 1999 – that of Geocities for $3.6 billion, and Broadcast.com for $5.7 billion.Its stock
price skyrocketed during the dot-com bubble, Yahoo stocks closing at an all-time high of
$118.75 a share on January 3, 2000. However, after the dot-com bubble burst, it
reached a post-bubble low of $8.11 on September 26, 2001. Yahoo began using Google for search in 2000. Over the next four years, it developed its
own search technologies, which it began using in 2004 partly using technology from its $280
million acquisition of Inktomi in 2002. In response to Google’s Gmail, Yahoo began
to offer unlimited email storage in 2007. The company struggled through 2008, with several
large layoffs.In February 2008, Microsoft Corporation made an unsolicited bid to acquire
Yahoo for $44.6 billion. Yahoo formally rejected the bid, claiming
that it “substantially undervalues” the company and was not in the interest of its shareholders. Three years later, Yahoo had a market capitalization
of $22.24 billion. Carol Bartz replaced Yang as CEO in January
2009. In September 2011, she was removed from her
position at Yahoo by the company’s chairman Roy Bostock, and CFO Tim Morse was named as
Interim CEO of the company.In early 2012, after the appointment of Scott Thompson as
CEO, rumors began to spread about looming layoffs. Several key executives left, including Chief
Product Officer Blake Irving. On April 4, 2012, Yahoo announced a cut of
2,000 jobs, or about 14 percent of its 14,100 workers. The cut was expected to save around $375 million
annually after the layoffs were completed at end of 2012. In an email sent to employees in April 2012,
Thompson reiterated his view that customers should come first at Yahoo. He also completely reorganized the company.On
May 13, 2012, Yahoo issued a press release stating that Thompson was no longer with the
company, and would immediately be replaced on an interim basis by Ross Levinsohn, recently
appointed head of Yahoo’s new Media group. Thompson’s total compensation for his 130-day
tenure with Yahoo was at least $7.3 million.On July 15, 2012, Marissa Mayer was appointed
President and CEO of Yahoo, effective July 17, 2012. On May 19, 2013 the Yahoo board approved a
$1.1 billion purchase of blogging site Tumblr. Tumblr’s CEO and founder David Karp would
remain a large shareholder. The announcement reportedly signified a changing
trend in the technology industry, as large corporations like Yahoo, Facebook, and Google
acquired start-up Internet companies that generated low amounts of revenue as a way
in which to connect with sizeable, fast-growing online communities. The Wall Street Journal stated that the purchase
of Tumblr would satisfy Yahoo’s need for “a thriving social-networking and communications
hub.” On May 20, the company announced the acquisition
of Tumblr officially and the transaction completed in one month. The company also announced plans to open a
San Francisco office in July 2013.On August 2, 2013, Yahoo acquired Rockmelt; its staff
was retained, but all of its existing products were terminated.Data collated by comScore
during July 2013 revealed that more people in the U.S. visited Yahoo websites during
the month than Google; the occasion was the first time that Yahoo outperformed Google
since 2011. The data did not count mobile usage, nor Tumblr.On
December 12, 2014, Yahoo! completed the acquisition of video advertising provider BrightRoll for
$583 million. On November 21, 2014, it was announced that
Yahoo had acquired Cooliris.===Decline, security breaches, Verizon purchase
===By the fourth quarter of 2013, the company’s
share price had more than doubled since Marissa Mayer took over as president in July 2012;
however, the share price peaked at about $35 in November 2013. It did go up to $36.04 in the mid-afternoon
of December 2, 2015, perhaps on news that the board of directors was meeting to decide
on the future of Mayer, whether to sell the struggling Internet business, and whether
to continue with the spinoff of its stake in China’s Alibaba e-commerce site. Not all had gone well during Mayer’s tenure,
including the $1.1 billion acquisition of Tumblr that had yet to prove beneficial and
the forays into original video content that led to a $42 million write-down. Sydney Finkelstein, a professor at Dartmouth
College’s Tuck School of Business, told The Washington Post that sometimes, “the single
best thing you can do … is sell the company.” The closing price of Yahoo! Inc. on December
7, 2015 was $34.68.The Wall Street Journal’s Douglas MacMillan reported on February 2,
2016 that Yahoo’s CEO Marissa Mayer was expected to cut 15% of its workforce.On July 25, 2016,
Verizon Communications announced that it had agreed to purchase Yahoo’s core Internet business
for $4.83 billion. Following the conclusion of the purchase,
these assets merged with AOL to form a new entity known as Oath Inc. on June 13, 2017;
Yahoo, AOL, and Huffington Post will continue to operate under their own names, under the
Oath Inc. umbrella. The deal excludes Yahoo’s 15% stake in Alibaba
Group and 35.5% stake in Yahoo! Japan; following the completion of the acquisition,
these assets will be retained under the name Altaba, with a new executive team.On September
22, 2016, Yahoo disclosed a data breach that occurred in late 2014, in which information
associated with at least 500 million user accounts, one of the largest breaches reported
to date. The United States have indicted four men,
including two employees of Russia’s Federal Security Service (FSB), for their involvement
in the hack. On December 14, 2016, the company revealed
that another separate data breach had occurred in 2014, with hackers obtaining sensitive
account information, including security questions, to at least one billion accounts. The company stated that hackers had utilized
stolen internal software to forge HTTP cookies.In response to these breaches, Bloomberg News
reported that Verizon was attempting to re-negotiate the deal to reduce the purchase price by $250
million, causing a 2% increase in Yahoo stock prices. On February 21, 2017, Verizon agreed to lower
its purchase price for Yahoo! by $350 million, and share liabilities regarding the investigation
into the data breaches.On June 8, 2017, Yahoo shareholders approved the company’s sale of
some of its Internet assets to Verizon for $4.48 billion. The deal officially closed on June 13, 2017.In
a press release from October 3, 2017, Oath Inc., a subsidiary of Verizon, stated that
all Yahoo user accounts, some 3 billion, were affected by the August 2013 theft.==Altaba Inc.==On June 16, 2017, parts of the original Yahoo
Inc, which were not purchased by Verizon Communications, were renamed Altaba Inc. On the United States Securities and Exchange
Commission’s website, they listed the new company as a “non-diversified, closed-end
management investment company.”The former Yahoo Inc. ticker symbol, YHOO, was retired
in favor of AABA. This took place on Monday, June 19, 2017.==Products and services==Yahoo operated a portal that provides the
latest news, entertainment, and sports information. The portal also gave users access to other
Yahoo services like Yahoo! Search, Yahoo Mail, Yahoo Maps, Yahoo Finance,
Yahoo Groups and Yahoo Messenger.===Communication===
Yahoo provided Internet communication services such as Yahoo Messenger and Yahoo Mail. As of May 2007, its e-mail service would offer
unlimited storage.Yahoo provided social networking services and user-generated content, including
products such as My Web, Yahoo Personals, Yahoo 360°, Delicious, Flickr, and Yahoo
Buzz. Yahoo closed Yahoo Buzz, MyBlogLog, and numerous
other products on April 21, 2011.Yahoo Photos was closed on September 20, 2007, in favor
of Flickr. On October 16, 2007, Yahoo announced that
it would discontinue Yahoo 360°, including bug repairs; the company explained that in
2008 it would instead establish a “universal profile” similar to the Yahoo Mash experimental
system.===Content===
Yahoo partners with numerous content providers in products such as Yahoo Sports, Yahoo Finance,
Yahoo Music, Yahoo Movies, Yahoo Weather, Yahoo News, Yahoo! Answers and Yahoo Games to provide news and
related content. Yahoo provides a personalization service,
My Yahoo, which enables users to combine their favorite Yahoo features, content feeds and
information onto a single page. On March 31, 2008, Yahoo launched Shine, a
site tailored for women seeking online information and advice between the ages of 25 and 54.===Co-branded Internet services===Yahoo developed partnerships with broadband
providers such as AT&T Inc. (via Prodigy, BellSouth & SBC), Verizon Communications,
Rogers Communications, and British Telecom, offering a range of free and premium Yahoo
content and services to subscribers.===Mobile services===
Yahoo Mobile offers services for email, instant messaging, and mobile blogging, as well as
information services, searches and alerts. Services for the camera phone include entertainment
and ring tones. Yahoo introduced its Internet search system,
called OneSearch, for mobile phones on March 20, 2007. The results include news headlines, images
from Flickr, business listings, local weather and links to other sites. Instead of showing only, for example, popular
movies or some critical reviews, OneSearch lists local theaters that at the moment are
playing the movie, along with user ratings and news headlines regarding the movie. A zip code or city name is required for OneSearch
to start delivering local search results. The results of a Web search are listed on
a single page and are prioritized into categories.As of 2012, Yahoo used Novarra’s mobile content
transcoding service for OneSearch.On October 8, 2010, Yahoo announced plans to bring video
chat to mobile phones via Yahoo Messenger.===Commerce===
Yahoo offers shopping services such as Yahoo! Shopping, Yahoo Autos, Yahoo Real Estate and
Yahoo Travel, which enables users to gather relevant information and make commercial transactions
and purchases online. Yahoo Auctions were discontinued in 2007 except
for Asia. Yahoo Shopping is a price comparison service
which uses the Kelkoo price comparison service it acquired in April 2004.===Advertising===
Yahoo Search Marketing provides services such as Sponsored Search, Local Advertising and
Product/Travel/Directory Submit that let different businesses advertise their products and services
on the Yahoo network.Following the closure of a “beta” version on April 30, 2010, the
Yahoo Publisher Network was relaunched as an advertising tool that allows online publishers
to monetize their websites through the use of site-relevant advertisements.Yahoo launched
its new Internet advertisement sales system in the fourth quarter of 2006, called Panama. It allows advertisers to bid for search terms
to trigger their ads on search results pages. The system considers bids, ad quality, clickthrough
rates and other factors in ranking ads. Through Panama, Yahoo aims to provide more
relevant search results to users, a better overall experience, and to increase monetization.On
April 7, 2008, Yahoo announced APT from Yahoo, which was originally called AMP from Yahoo,
an online advertising management platform. The platform simplifies advertising sales
by unifying buyer and seller markets. The service was launched in September 2008.In
July 2009, Yahoo agrees to use Microsoft as exclusive technology provider for its search
services, and Microsoft will provide contextual advertising to Yahoo! on a non-exclusive basis. Yahoo! will be the exclusive worldwide relationship
sales force for Yahoo!’s and Microsoft’s premium search advertisers. In September 2011, Yahoo formed an ad selling
strategic partnership with 2 of its top competitors, AOL and Microsoft. But by 2013 this was found to be underperforming
in market share and revenue, as Microsoft simply skimmed off four percent of the search
market from Yahoo, without growing their combined share.===Yahoo Next===Yahoo Next was an incubation ground for future
Yahoo technologies currently undergoing testing. It contained forums for Yahoo users to give
feedback to assist in the development of these future Yahoo technologies.===Yahoo BOSS===Yahoo Search BOSS is a service that allows
developers to build search applications based on Yahoo’s search technology. Early Partners in the program include Hakia,
Me.dium, Delver, Daylife and Yebol.In early 2011, the program switched to a paid model
using a cost-per-query model from $0.40 to $0.75 CPM (cost per 1000 BOSS queries). The price, as Yahoo explained, depends on
whether the query is of web, image, news or other information. It became defunct in 2016 and has been replaced
by Yahoo Partner Ads.===Yahoo Meme===Yahoo Meme was a beta social service, similar
to the popular social networking sites Twitter and Jaiku.===Y!Connect===
Y!Connect enables individuals to leave comments in online publication boards by using their
Yahoo ID, instead of having to register with individual publications. The Wall Street Journal reported that Yahoo
plans to mimic this strategy used by rival Facebook Inc. to help drive traffic to its
site.===Yahoo Accessibility===
Yahoo has invested resources to increase and improve access to the Internet for the disabled
community through the Yahoo Accessibility Lab.===Yahoo Axis===Yahoo Axis was a desktop web browser extension
and mobile browser for iOS devices created and developed by Yahoo. The extension made its public debut on May
23, 2012 and retired June 28, 2013. A copy of the private key used to sign official
Yahoo browser extensions for Google Chrome was accidentally leaked in the first public
release of the Chrome extension.===Yahoo SearchMonkey===
Yahoo SearchMonkey (often misspelled Search Monkey) was a Yahoo service which allowed
developers and site owners to use structured data to make Yahoo Search results more useful
and visually appealing, and drive more relevant traffic to their sites. The service was shut down in October 2010
along with other Yahoo services as part of the Microsoft and Yahoo search deal. The name SearchMonkey is an homage to Greasemonkey. Officially the product name has no space and
two capital letters. Yahoo SearchMonkey was selected as one of
the top 10 Semantic Web Products of 2008.===Defunct services===Geocities was a popular web hosting service
founded in 1995 and was one of the first services to offer web pages to the public. At one point it was the third-most-browsed
site on the World Wide Web. Yahoo purchased GeoCities in 1999 and ten
years later the web host was closed, deleting some seven million web pages. A great deal of information was lost but many
of those sites and pages were mirrored at the Internet Archive, OOcities.com, and other
such databases.Yahoo Go, a Java-based phone application with access to most of Yahoo services,
was closed on January 12, 2010.Yahoo 360° was a blogging/social networking beta service
launched in March 2005 by Yahoo and closed on July 13, 2009. Yahoo Mash beta was another social service
closed after one year of operation prior to leaving beta status.Yahoo Photos was shut
down on September 20, 2007, in favor of integration with Flickr. Yahoo Tech was a website that provided product
information and setup advice to users. Yahoo launched the website in May 2006. On March 11, 2010, Yahoo closed down the service
and redirected users to Yahoo’s technology news section. Other discontinued services include Farechase,
My Web, Audio Search, Pets, Live, Kickstart, Briefcase, and Yahoo for Teachers.Hotjobs
was acquired by and merged with Monster.com. Yahoo Koprol was an Indonesian geo-tagging
website that allowed users to share information about locations without the use of a GPS device. Koprol was acquired by Yahoo a year following
its inception and, in 2011, 1.5 million people were utilizing the website, with users also
based in Singapore, the Philippines and Vietnam. However, eighty percent of users were Indonesian. Yahoo officially discontinued Koprol on August
28, 2012, because it did “not meaningfully drive revenue or engagement”.Yahoo Mail Classic
was announced as to be shut down in April 2013. Yahoo made a notice that, starting in June
2013, Mail Classic and other old versions of Yahoo Mail will be shut down. All users of Mail Classic are expected to
switch to the new Yahoo Mail, use IMAP, or switch to another email service. In addition, April 2013 brought the closure
of Upcoming, Yahoo Deals, Yahoo SMS Alerts, Yahoo Kids, Yahoo Mail and Messenger feature
phone (J2ME).In early July 2013 Yahoo announced the scheduled closure of the task management
service Astrid. Yahoo had acquired the company in May 2013
and was to discontinue the service on August 5, 2013. The team at Astrid has supplied its customers
with a data export tool and recommended former competitors such as Wunderlist and Sandglaz.====Twitter slide leak on changes to Yahoo
====On December 15, 2010, one day after Yahoo
announced layoffs of 4% of its workers across their portfolio, MyBlogLog founder Eric Marcoullier
posted a slide from a Yahoo employee on Twitter. The slide was visible during an employee-only
strategy webcast indicating changes in Yahoo’s offerings.The following services were in a
column under “Sunset”: Yahoo Picks, AltaVista, MyM, AlltheWeb, Yahoo Bookmarks, Yahoo Buzz,
del.icio.us, and MyBlogLog. Under the “Merge” column were: Upcoming, FoxyTunes,
Yahoo Events, Yahoo People Search, Sideline, and FireEagle. 11 other properties were listed that Yahoo
was interested in developing into feature sites within the portal to take the place
of the “Sunset” and “Merge” vacancies, including the prior feature services (before the new
Yahoo Mail was launched), were Yahoo Address Book, Calendar, and Notepad. Despite Notepad being listed as a feature
service instead of sunset or merge in 2010, Yahoo has since taken steps to de-emphasize
Notepad. For example, in January 2013, Notepad was
no longer linked within the new Yahoo mail service, although it continued to be linked
in the older Classic version. Also, starting in mid- to late January 2013,
Notepad was no longer searchable.The blog on the del.icio.us website released a post
by Chris Yeh after the slide was leaked in which Yeh stated that “Sunset” doesn’t necessarily
mean that Yahoo is closing down the site. Yeh further explained that other possibilities—including
del.icio.us leaving Yahoo (through sale or spinoff)—were still being considered: “We
can only imagine how upsetting the news coverage over the past 24 hours has been to many of
you. Speaking for our team, we were very disappointed
by the way that this appeared in the press.” On April 27, 2011, Yahoo’s sale of del.icio.us
to Avos was announced.Yahoo Buzz was closed down on April 21, 2011 without an official
announcement from Yahoo. MyBlogLog was then discontinued by Yahoo on
May 24, 2011.==Privacy==In September 2013, Yahoo’s transparency report
said the company received 29 thousand requests for information about users from governments
in the first six months of 2013. Over 12 thousand of the requests came from
the United States.In October 2013, The Washington Post reported that the U.S. National Security
Agency intercepted communications between Yahoo’s data centers, as part of a program
named Muscular.In late January 2014, Yahoo announced on its company blog that it had
detected a “coordinated effort” to hack into possibly millions of Yahoo Mail accounts. The company prompted users to reset their
passwords, but did not elaborate on the scope of the possible breach, citing an ongoing
federal investigation.In August 2015, Researchers at Malwarebytes, notified Yahoo about its
users getting hacked because of vulnerabilities in Flash. According to them the vulnerability could
allow attackers to install “ransomware” on users’ computers and lock their files till
the customers pay the criminals.===Storing personal information and tracking
usage===Working with comScore, The New York Times
found that Yahoo was able to collect far more data about users than its competitors from
its Web sites and advertising network. By one measure, on average Yahoo had the potential
in December 2007 to build a profile of 2,500 records per month about each of its visitors. Yahoo retains search requests for a period
of 13 months. However, in response to European regulators,
Yahoo obfuscates the IP address of users after three months by deleting its last eight bits.On
March 29, 2012, Yahoo announced that it would introduce a “Do Not Track” feature that summer,
allowing users to opt out of Web-visit tracking and customized advertisements. However, on April 30, 2014, Yahoo announced
that it would no longer support the “Do Not Track” browser setting.According to a 2008
article in Computerworld, Yahoo has a 2-petabyte, specially built data warehouse that it uses
to analyze the behavior of its half-billion Web visitors per month, processing 24 billion
daily events. In contrast, the United States Internal Revenue
Service (IRS) database of all United States taxpayers is only 150 terabytes.On September
2016, it was reported that data from at least 500 million Yahoo accounts was stolen in 2014.In
October 2016, Reuters reported that in 2015, Yahoo! created software to search their customers’
e-mail at the request of NSA or FBI.==Criticism==In 2000, Yahoo was taken to court in France
by parties seeking to prevent French citizens from purchasing memorabilia relating to the
Nazi Party. In March 2004, Yahoo launched a paid inclusion
program whereby commercial websites were guaranteed listings on the Yahoo search engine. Yahoo discontinued the program at the end
of 2009. Yahoo was criticized for providing ads via
the Yahoo ad network to companies who display them through spyware and adware.Yahoo, as
well as other search engines, cooperated with the Chinese government in censoring search
results. In April 2005, dissident Shi Tao was sentenced
to 10 years in prison for “providing state secrets to foreign entities” as a result of
being identified by IP address by Yahoo. Human rights organizations and the company’s
general counsel disputed the extent of Yahoo’s foreknowledge of Shi’s fate. Human rights groups also accuse Yahoo of aiding
authorities in the arrest of dissidents Li Zhi and Jiang Lijun. In April 2017, Yahoo was sued for failing
to uphold settlement agreements in this case. Yahoo pledged to give support to the families
of those arrested and create a relief fund for those persecuted for expressing their
views online with Yahoo Human Rights Trust. Of the $17.3 million allotted to this fund,
$13 million had been used for a townhouse in Washington, DC and other purchases.In September
2003, dissident Wang Xiaoning was convicted of charges of “incitement to subvert state
power” and was sentenced to ten years in prison. Yahoo Hong Kong connected Wang’s group to
a specific Yahoo e-mail address. Both Xiaoning’s wife and the World Organization
for Human Rights sued Yahoo under human rights laws on behalf of Wang and Shi.As a result
of media scrutiny relating to Internet child predators and a lack of significant ad revenues,
Yahoo’s “user created” chatrooms were closed down in June 2005. On May 25, 2006, Yahoo’s image search was
criticized for bringing up sexually explicit images even when SafeSearch was active. In August 2015, Yahoo purchased a 40% (23%
in September 2013) owner of Alibaba Group, which was a subject of controversy for allowing
the sale of shark-derived products. The company banned the sale of shark fin products
on all its e-commerce platforms effective January 1, 2009. On November 30, 2009, Yahoo was criticized
by the Electronic Frontier Foundation for sending a DMCA notice to whistle-blower website
“Cryptome” for publicly posting details, prices, and procedures on obtaining private information
pertaining to Yahoo’s subscribers.After some concerns over censorship of private emails
regarding a website affiliated with Occupy Wall Street protests were raised, Yahoo responded
with an apology and explained it as an accident.Following media reports about PRISM, NSA’s massive electronic
surveillance program, in June 2013, several technology companies were identified as participants,
including Yahoo.Yahoo is listed in the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents
relating to offshore investment that were leaked to the German newspaper Süddeutsche
Zeitung.===Allegations of sexism against men===
Scott Ard, a prominent editorial director, fired from Yahoo in 2015 has filed a lawsuit
accusing Mayer of leading a sexist campaign to purge male employees. Ard, a male employee, stated “Mayer encouraged
and fostered the use of (an employee performance-rating system) to accommodate management’s subjective
biases and personal opinions, to the detriment of Yahoo’s male employees”. In the suit Ard claimed prior to his firing,
he had received “fully satisfactory” performance reviews since starting at the company in 2011
as head of editorial programming for Yahoo’s home page, however, he was relieved of his
role that was given to a woman who had been recently hired by Megan Lieberman, the editor-in-chief
of Yahoo News.The lawsuit states: “Liberman stated that she was terminating
(Ard) because she had not received a requested breakdown of (his) duties. (Ard) had already provided that very information
as requested, however, and reminded Liberman that he had done so. Liberman’s excuse for terminating (Ard) was
a pretext.”A second sexual discrimination lawsuit was filed separately by Gregory Anderson,
who was fired in 2014, alleging the company’s performance management system was arbitrary
and unfair, making it the second sexism lawsuit Yahoo and Mayer has faced in 2016.===Illegally accessing user accounts===
In October 2019, A former Yahoo engineer named, Reyes Daniel Ruiz pleaded guilty to charges
of illegally accessing user accounts by a federal court in San Jose. He had hacked about 6,000 user’s accounts
including his friends, co-workers and many young women during his hacking campaign, seeking
sexual images and videos.==Management=====Chief Executive Officers===
Marissa Mayer (2012–2017) Ross Levinsohn Interim (2012)
Scott Thompson (2012) Tim Morse Interim (2011–2012)
Carol Bartz (2009–2011) Jerry Yang (2007–2009)
Terry Semel (2001–2007) Timothy Koogle (1995–2001)Former chief operating
officer Henrique de Castro departed from the company in January 2014 after Mayer, who initially
hired him after her appointment as CEO, dismissed him. De Castro, who previously worked for Google
and McKinsey & Company, was employed to revive Yahoo’s advertising business.==Yahoo International==Yahoo offers a multi-lingual interface. The site is available in over 20 languages. The official directory for all of the Yahoo
International sites is world.yahoo.com. The company’s international sites are wholly
owned by Yahoo, with the exception of its Japan and China sites. Yahoo holds a 34.75% minority stake in Yahoo! Japan, while SoftBank holds 35.45%, Yahoo!Xtra
in New Zealand, which Yahoo!7 have 51% of and 49% belongs to Telecom New Zealand, and
Yahoo!7 in Australia, which is a 50–50 agreement between Yahoo and the Seven Network. Historically, Yahoo entered into joint venture
agreements with SoftBank for the major European sites (UK, France and Germany) and well as
South Korea and Japan. In November 2005, Yahoo purchased the minority
interests that SoftBank owned in Europe and Korea. Yahoo used to hold a 40% stake and 35% voting
power in Alibaba, which manages a web portal in China using the Yahoo brand name, Yahoo! China. Yahoo in the USA does not have direct control
over Alibaba, which operates as a completely independent company. On September 18, 2012, following years of
negotiations, Yahoo agreed to sell a 20% stake back to Alibaba for $7.6 billion.On March
8, 2011 Yahoo launched its Romania local service after years of delay due to the financial
crisis.Yahoo officially entered the MENA region when it acquired Maktoob, a pan-regional,
Arabic-language hosting and social services online portal, on August 25, 2009. Since the service is pan-regional, Yahoo officially
became Yahoo Maktoob in the region. On December 31, 2012, Yahoo! Korea shut down
all its services and left the country, with its previous domain saying in Korean, “Starting
from December 31, 2012, Yahoo! Korea has ended. You can go to the original Yahoo! for more
Yahoo’s information.” Sooner did that message also disappear, leaving
with just an abandoned, empty search bar powered by Bing.On September 2, 2013, Yahoo! China shut down and was redirected to taobao.com,
and has been being redirected to Yahoo Singapore’s search page.==Logos and themes==Yahoo got its first logo during its establishment
in 1994—it consists of the “Yahoo” wordmark which is coloured black and are using the
Times New Roman font, but it were later changed. In March 1995, when the company changed its
name to Yahoo, it introduced another logo which is briefly changed to a more elaborate
text that includes an exclamation point at the end, but it were short-lived for only
5 months. Later, in August 1995, that same year, Yahoo
changed its logo again and it became an stylized yellow jumping “Y” figurine on a blue circle
while the “Yahoo!” wordmark is written below, but the logo were also short-lived for 4 months
until December 1995. On January 1, 1996, Yahoo introduced a much
tweaking and refining new logo which was quickly simplified to just the text and the exclamation
mark with a slight shadow behind the text, although it gets coloured with red and are
also containing three icons on each side, as well as it becomes a simple wordmark without
graphics, and should therefore create the familiar logo that has been in existence since. Eventually, this logo were used on the Yahoo
home page, and it formerly consists of the red color with a black outline and shadow,
but in June 2002, it were later becoming slightly changed, with new black shadows on the text
that replaces the older gray color, except that it gets introduced to Yahoo! Japan within the following year, if it gets
still used of today, with a slight moderation in 2013 (see below). By May 2009, Yahoo overhauled a theme redesign
which makes the logo become recoloured with purple without an outline or shadow, but the
purple logo had first appeared on the headquarters and on Yahoo! Messenger in 1995, although it did not get
into its full effect from November 12, 2009, when the site received a revamp, that will
entirely remove the old red color from 1996, so the change would apply to several international
Yahoo home pages, but in some countries, most notably Yahoo!7 (of Australia), the logo is
still using the red logo until 2014, and at the same time, the purple logo comes up with
a new slogan “It’s Y!ou” which is used at the time, and on occasion, it would at the
same time be abbreviated as “Y!”On August 7, 2013, at around midnight EDT, Yahoo announced
that the final version of the new logo would be revealed on September 5, 2013 at 4:00 a.m.
UTC. In the period leading up to the unveiling
of the new logo, the “30 Days of Change” campaign was introduced, whereby a variation of the
logo was published every day for the 30 days following the announcement. The new logo was eventually launched with
an accompanying video that showed its digital construction, and Mayer published a personalized
description of the design process on her Tumblr page. Mayer explains: So, one weekend this summer, I rolled up my
sleeves and dove into the trenches with our logo design team … We spent the majority
of Saturday and Sunday designing the logo from start to finish, and we had a ton of
fun weighing every minute detail. We knew we wanted a logo that reflected Yahoo
– whimsical, yet sophisticated. Modern and fresh, with a nod to our history. Having a human touch, personal. Proud. On September 19, 2013, Yahoo launched a new
version of the “My Yahoo” personalized homepage. The redesign allows users to tailor a homepage
with widgets that access features such as email accounts, calendars, Flickr and other
Yahoo content, and Internet content. Users can also select “theme packs” that represent
artists such as Polly Apfelbaum and Alec Monopoly, and bands such as Empire of the Sun. Mayer then explained at a conference in late
September 2013 that the logo change was the result of feedback from both external parties
and employees.==See also==List of search engines
List of web analytics software Yahoo! litigation
Yahoo! Messenger Protocol

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